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    Perception Articles – Kgms


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    Although perception management operations are typically carried out within the international arena between governments, and between governments and citizens, use of perception management techniques have become part of mainstream information management systems in many ways that do not concern military campaigns or government relations with citizenry.

    Businesses may even contract with other businesses to conduct perception management for them, or they may conduct it in-house with their public relations staff.

    As Stan Moore has written, "Just because truth has been omitted, does not mean that truth is not true.

    Just because reality has not been perceived, does not mean that it is not real. There are nine strategies for perception management.

    According to Carlo Kopp, these include: [7] [8]. Life cycle models of organizational development suggest that the growth and ultimate survival of a firm is dependent on how effectively business leaders navigate crisis, or crisis-like, events through their life cycles.

    This definition is based on the understanding of four unique components of organizational perception management: perception of the organization; actions or tactics; organizational spokespersons; and organizational audiences.

    The organizational perceptions is further classified into three major forms namely organizational images, organizational reputation, and organizational identities.

    Following are the examples of perception management in relation to specific organizations or communities:. Beginning in the s, news media and public information organizations and individuals carried out assignments to manage the public's perception of the CIA , according to the New York Times.

    Carl Bernstein wrote in that "The CIA in the s, '60s, and even early 70s had concentrated its relationships with journalists in the most prominent sectors of the American press corps, including four or five of the largest newspaper in the country, the broadcast networks, and the two major weekly news magazines.

    The term "perception management" is not new [ as of? For years the FBI has listed foreign perception management as one of eight "key issue threats" to national security , including it with terrorism , attacks on critical US infrastructure, and weapons proliferation among others.

    The FBI clearly recognizes perception management as a threat when it is directed at the US by foreign governments. Deception and sleight of hand are important in gaining advantages in war, both to gain domestic support of the operations and for the military against the enemy.

    Although perception management is specifically defined as being limited to foreign audiences, critics of the DOD charge that it also engages in domestic perception management.

    An example cited is the prohibition of viewing or photographing the flag draped caskets of dead military as they are unloaded in bulk upon arrival in the U.

    The DOD also describes perception management as an intent to provoke the behavior one wants out of a given individual. A similar situation occurred in Iraq in when the US military covertly paid Iraqi newspapers to print stories written by US soldiers; these stories were geared towards enhancing the appearance of the US mission in Iraq.

    Domestically, during the Vietnam War, critics allege the Pentagon exaggerated communist threats to the United States in order to gain more public support for an increasingly bloody war.

    This was similarly seen in with accusations that the government embellished the threat and existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.

    The US military has demonstrated using perception management multiple times in modern warfare, even though it has proven to take a hit to its credibility among the American people.

    When it came to light, the Pentagon was initially criticized for simply using a perception management office to influence foreign states.

    Shortly after, the Office of Special Plans was created with a more focused goal of selective intelligence vetting outside the normal chartered intelligence apparatus, with foreign propaganda activities moved to the Office of Information Activities under the direction of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict.

    More recently, the DOD has continued to pursue actively a course of perception management about the Iraq War. Recognizing its vulnerability to information and media flows, the DoD has identified the information domain as its new 'asymmetric flank.

    The level of use of perception management is continuing to grow throughout the Army. Until recently specialists, known as psychological operations officers and civil affairs officers , whose only purpose is to decide how to present information to the media and to the people of the current country that they are in only held positions in high division levels of command.

    The Army has decided that it is now necessary that these specialists be included in the transformed brigades and deal with "everything from analyzing the enemy's propaganda leaflets to talking with natives to see what the Army can do to make them their friends", said 3rd Brigade's Civil Affairs Officer Maj.

    Glenn Tolle. Businesses shape the perceptions of the public in order to get the desired behavior and purchase patterns from consumers.

    In terms of advertising and brand image , without a perception to manage, no other form of communication can happen. That highlights the importance of the brand image.

    However, some research [ which? If it is spending a lot on advertising, then the company must be reasonably profitable which means that other consumers must be buying the product and they must be satisfied enough with its performance; therefore, the product must be of reasonable quality.

    Sometimes managing perception can simply just mean giving consumers a perception. Advertising, without even considering its message and quality, adds to consumer opinions in a positive light.

    Companies [ which? Through positive association, a brand manager can strengthen the company's marketing and gain brand value.

    This is an important step in perception management because it aims at producing the most effective results.

    Brand management deals with competitors, promotions, costs, and satisfaction in order to earn trust from consumers and show positive feedback.

    People can use perception management as a way to positively enhance their leadership abilities. A person's ability to manage perceptions is what sets great leaders apart.

    What people — followers — appraise as effectiveness and ability as a leader becomes their perception, which then becomes reality.

    Unmanaged perceptions of a person's followers create a reality opposite to what was wanted. The best medium for businesses to affect the perceptions of the public is through marketing.

    To get people to buy products, marketers must identify a need and manage the perception of the public so that they feel the product will fulfill that need.

    This is not the same thing as manipulation, where businesses create something people don't need, and marketers convince them that they do need it.

    Good perception management is to the benefit of the consumer, as it fulfills more of the customer's needs, and to the benefit of the business, as it increases their revenue.

    In some [ which? A good example of this is credit card companies. Credit card companies are companies that, like most other companies, started off by providing a convenience to the population.

    Credit cards offer an alternative method of payment to cash or check and make life simpler for many people; however, today there are over million credit cards issued in the United States alone and four major credit card companies.

    This fact has necessitated the need for almost every citizen to have a credit card. However, many credit cards companies manage their perception to make sure that people continue to need credit cards, and control their perception so that many people do not fully understand what they are getting into.

    However, the fact that the average household in the United States is in over fifteen thousand dollars worth of debt never reaches the widespread public.

    But no company tells their customers that the promoted interest rate more than doubles if they do not pay the minimum balance on time. For instance, Discover's interest rate increases to In short, though credit cards are convenient and fulfill a need, the companies often make no mention of the negative effects that they might have on many of their users.

    The decision making process in relation to the future is an element of business that has a great effect on the company's future.

    If the company is too risk averse, this leads to underperformance, and a missed opportunity. If the company takes too many risks, it is likely that there will be a large amount of losses.

    Ultimately if this amount of risk taking leads the perception of the company to exceed the boundaries of logic and fact, the company will most likely fail based on their poor perception.

    Though not a substitute for a substantial product, it is useful in "sustaining the offering" for a length of time. The communication gaps that exist in international business can lead to misunderstandings.

    Perception management helps to prevent the complex emotional characteristics of communication from changing the original interpretation of the message.

    Perception management also serves to change the original interpretation of the message in order to prevent complex emotional characteristics in communication.

    The phrase "perception management" is filtering into common use as a synonym for "persuasion". Public relations firms now offer "perception management" as one of their services.

    Food and beverage manufacturers can manage the perceptions of consumers by controlling information on food labels.

    Many chain restaurants also try to make their food appear to be healthier but serve too large of a portion. Fast food restaurants use advertising to make their food appear healthier when they have not changed anything about it either.

    Consumers have to consider where their health and nutrition information is coming from. When one gets nutrition information from the media, one is getting it from the food industry and companies that could benefit from customers purchasing their products.

    Perception management is essentially a means for which an image or reputation can be created and maintained, whether it is true or not. In this case, the ADA is adjusting its name to more accurately describe the organization.

    According to Escott-Stump, "The name Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics promotes the strong science background and academic expertise of our members.

    Also, by keeping dietetics, it creates a connection between the new research and the history and reputation ADA has as a food and science-based profession.

    Escott-Stump reassured the public that although the name is changing, the organization's mission will remain the same as it has been for nearly years.

    The Society for the Study of Addiction published a paper by researchers at the Deakin University School of Psychology, Australia, about a study of use of public relations companies by the alcohol industry.

    The study proposes that " The study concluded that Australian SAPRO Drinkwise "has been used by the alcohol industry to create an impression of social responsibility while promoting interventions that maintain profits and campaigning against effective interventions such as higher taxes on alcohol".

    Perception management is a robust component in the fashion industry. Fashion stylists are responsible for providing perception management in the branding of products, and in creating the public persona of both individuals, businesses, and brands, through means of wardrobe, appearance, and communication skills.

    According to one analyst, "In the external environment, the offerings of competitors, with which a customer compares a product or service will change, thus altering his perception of the best offer around.

    Another point is that the public opinion towards certain issues can change. This effect can reach from fashion trends to the public expectation of good corporate citizenship.

    This is very efficient with fragrances or fashion brands. Public relation firms are now offering services to celebrity clients in perception management or reputation repair.

    It is a new tool for public firms that lets large firms pour huge resources to the public through websites. The web helps public relations executives to reach out the news media and it offer ways to link the public relations people and news media.

    For example, firms provide direct email addresses of some business journalists. Well-known agencies, such as William Morris and competitor Creative Artists Agency , recently started attracting huge sports stars.

    Alex Rodriguez joined the company after his alleged affair with Madonna, during the summer of In a short January interview conducted by contactmusic.

    These students actively manage the perception of others because the awareness of their disability "altered the behavior of others towards them".

    Perception management has long been a key issue in the United States government. Beginning in the s, the CIA contracted out several hundred different public information and news agencies for different "assignments".

    This practice grew, and currently operates with several thousand initiatives helping to privately shape public opinion of the government. Indeed, the Department of Defense views perception management as a psychological operation aimed at eliciting the desired behavior by manipulating the opinions of both enemies and friends.

    Best put by the DOD directly, "Perception management combines truth projection, operations security, cover and deception, and psychological operations.

    It is absolutely vital that the Perception Management campaign of the United States and its allies be coordinated at the highest possible level, that it be resourced adequately, and executed effectively.

    Properly coordinated, such a campaign could be a war-winning capability. When left uncoordinated, such operations will achieve only modest success, at best, and at worst, could seriously backfire.

    Even a poorly chosen word, used in the heat of the moment e. Typical counter-terrorism CT thinking focuses on the violence, or its associated threat, to identify and exploit associated avenues for meaningful response and reaction.

    Perception management in politics is referred to as " political marketing strategy", or "strategic political marketing".

    It originated from traditional business marketing strategies applied to politics, largely for the purpose of winning elections. Political parties and actors can choose between two fundamental methods: leading the market or following the market.

    Leading the market involves fulfilling underlying demands of principle, and a political actor would essentially assume the position of one who leads on their own ideas and principles.

    Following the market entails the political actor's reliance on research such as public opinion surveys and adoption of those principles and ideas held by the majority of the people who the political actor wishes to influence.

    Central to political marketing is the concept of strategic political postures—positions organizations assume to prompt the desired perceptions in a target group.

    Each strategic political posture relies on a different mix of leading and following, and includes four general types of postures:. Political market orientation PMO originated from commercial market orientation strategies applied to a political environment.

    Developed by Robert Ormrod, the comprehensive PMO model involves four attitudinal constructs and four behavioral methods:. Journalism is a field that organizations, companies, governments, and individuals will attempt to use to manage the public's perception of that specific organization, company, government, or person.

    Perception management through journalism has been seen especially in regard to government propaganda and war. This becomes problematic when governments promote certain ideas that they want the public to believe through journalism, without the journalists and media properly attributing their sources.

    Another issue in the journalism field is between the corporate business of keeping a news organization afloat versus the ethics of reporting and reporting the truth.

    Just as with any other major corporation or even small businesses there are conflicts between the reporters and the executives within a news organization.

    Reporters with strong ethics will want to run all stories that are "newsworthy", but some of those stories may be censored by editors because the executives have sent a note down the chain specifying that a certain story may or may not run.

    A newly emerging section of psychology known as positive psychology has to do with controlling one's perception of the world.

    Positive psychology says that in order to be most successful, one must perceive the world in a positive light. This means controlling one's thoughts, feelings, and outlook on life so that they are all positive.

    In restaurants, the staff will frequently overestimate the wait time for a group of customers to be seated because when they are seated quicker, they experience increased satisfaction and perceive the restaurant in a more favorable manner.

    Psychology is important in for perception management to be effective, because knowing the way the human mind functions and thinks is necessary to give the customers the satisfaction they want and expect.

    Baseball player Sammy Sosa used perception management after he was ejected from a game in when he was caught using a corked bat.

    His explanation was that he only uses the corked bat for batting practice so he can hit more home runs and put on a show for fans.

    He claimed picking up the corked bat for the game was an honest mistake and apologized to everybody.

    Golfer Arnold Palmer used perception management as well. In the U. Open , Palmer saw the first hole at Cherry Hills as an eagle opportunity.

    He perceived that if he could simply drive the ball into the longer rough in order to slow it down before it rolled across the very fast green, he could make the putt for eagle.

    Many doubted Palmer when he spoke of doing so, but that did not stop him. Palmer did exactly what he perceived of doing, making the eagle, and later going on to win.

    Nine different sized black circles were glued onto a white background. After a round of golf, forty-six golfers were asked which black circle was the size of the hole on the putting greens.

    The players with the overall better scores perceived the hole to be bigger than it actually is, so they chose the bigger black circles.

    The players with the worse scores perceived the hole as being smaller than it actually is. In the profession of athletic training there are many controversies, but none greater than the treatment and management of concussions.

    For many years people [ who? However, substantial research [ which? Such serious injuries deserve appropriate attention to treatment and to prevention.

    With a concussion, function may be interrupted but there is no structural damage to the brain, so the physical examination often appears normal.

    In May , the CDC devised new standards for concussion management that were realized, and stated that if an athlete was involved in a play where a concussion was possible a direct blow to the head , the athlete is supposed to be evaluated by a certified athletic trainer or a qualified physician if available.

    The new standards go on to say that if the athlete has any signs of a concussion, they are not able to return to play for the rest of the game or practice.

    With these strategies, athletes put themselves at risk for the "second concussion", which can leave permanent brain damage and can even lead to death.

    Although in theory these new standards for concussions are great for significantly reducing the risk of missing symptoms that appear after 24 hours and preventing any further brain damage, but with athletes now hiding possible concussions from athletic trainers and physicians, these standards may actually have a negative effect on concussion management.

    Perception management is the idea of using an image as a tool for identification of sponsorship opportunities. An effective sponsorship relationship outlines a good match between the image the company wants to promote and the image of the sponsored body, and if successful, elevates both.

    Perception management directs both behavior and communication activities as it works towards the establishment of a common vision of reality in a given social group.

    Professional sports teams [ which? Many sports leagues and teams [ which? Available from: URL: www. Higher Education Commission, Pakistan. Quality assurance.

    Faculty appointment criteria. J Investig Med May;54 4 DOI: Varki A, Rosenberg LE. Emerging opportunities and career paths for the young physician-scientist.

    Nat Med. Med Educ ;38 8 Impact of medical student research in the development of Physician-scientists. J Investig Med ;51 3 Neilson EG.

    The role of medical school admissions committees in the decline of physician-scientists. J Clin Invest ; 6 Residents' and program directors' attitudes toward research during anesthesiology training: a Canadian perspective.

    Anesth Analg. Knowledge, attitudes and practices around health research: the perspective of physicians-in-training in Pakistan.

    BMC Med Educ. Medical student research exposure via a series of modular research programs. J Investig Med. Involvement of medical students and fresh medical graduates of Karachi, Pakistan in research.

    J Pak Med Assoc ; 61 2 The development of a mandatory medical thesis in an urban medical school.

    Teach Learn Med ; Fennimore TF. Structured research activity as a vehicle for fostering reflective Practice among Medical students.

    Med Sci Educator ; 19 2S : The UCSD research associate program: a recipe for successfully integrating undergraduates with emergency medicine research.

    Epistemologists ask whether a real, physical world exists independently of human experience and, if so, how its properties can be learned and how the truth or accuracy of that experience can be determined. In response to objections about subjectivism, there arose an approach known as behaviourism that restricts its data to objective Rohrfrei Granulat or measurements of the overt behaviour of organisms other than the experimenter himself. Stereoscopic depth cues provide information Poppen Poppen distances of objects in near space as a function of their relative horizontal positions in the visual field. Infant perception, process by which a human infant (age 0 to 12 months) gains awareness of and responds to external stimuli. At birth, infants possess functional sensory systems; vision is somewhat organized, and audition (hearing), olfaction (smell), and touch are fairly mature. “A HUGE, heartfelt thanks to all the KGMS staff!! We continue to be amazed at the continual support, patience, understanding, kindness, and positivity our son receives at school. Your hard work does not go unnoticed, and it is greatly appreciated.”. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny. Perception is not reality, but, admittedly, perception can become a person’s reality (there is a difference) because perception has a potent influence on how we look at reality. This new perception of the conversation or event can easily be inaccurate because to a certain extent we process what we expect not what is offered. By default reality is an illusion, there is. J Investig Med ;51 3 Perception management is a robust component in the fashion industry. Perception management in politics is referred Value Bets as " political marketing strategy", or "strategic political marketing". Food and Drug Administration. Educ Med J ;7 1 Businesses shape the perceptions of the public in order to get the desired behavior and purchase patterns from consumers. In Begriffe Erklären Spiel of advertising and brand imagewithout a perception to manage, Puzzles Online Spielen other form of communication can happen. Society for the Study of Addiction. With these strategies, athletes put themselves at risk for the "second concussion", which can leave permanent brain damage and can even lead to death. Credit card companies are companies that, like most other companies, started off by providing a convenience to the population. Student number: DECLARATION I declare that KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES REGARDING CONTRACEPTION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL LEARNERS IN THE LIMPOPO PROVINCE is my own work and that all the sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references and that this work. In the North Island, average herd size was and average production was kgMS/cow/year, while in the South Island the figures were and kgMS/cow/year, respectively. Of the 60 farms, lame cows were treated by farm staff only on 38 farms, by a combination of veterinarian and farm staff on 21 farms, and on one farm by veterinarians only. 3/12/ · We make that information available, alongside analysis from our industry experts, in this Brand Perception Summary – a global view of how the KPMG brand is perceived by KPMG’s existing clients as well as its prospects. Latest Thinking. Posted 03/12/ Data, instinct, and what the US election tells us about both.

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